آداب شهر المحرم

 

Muharram’s Adab, Practices and Du’as

Handouts:

Important Events in Muharram:

  • 1st of Muharram – Hijrah of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ from Makkah to Madinatul Munawera (City of Light), Marking the beginning of Islamic Calendar Islamic New Year
  • 10th of Muharram (61 AH) – The day of ‘Ashura – Martyrdom of Imam Hussain (as) (Grandson of Sayyidina Muhammad (saws) – 3rd Holy Imam) 
  • 14th of Muharram – Birthday of Shah Bahauddin Naqshband (Q) (Shaykh of Naqshbandi Tariqa)
  • 25thof Muharram (95 AH) – Martyrdom of Imam ‘Ali Zain al ‘Abideen(as) (as) Son of Imam Hussain (as) and 4th Holy Imam)

 

Immense Blessings of Muharram

Muharram is the first month of the Islamic Hijri Lunar Calendar. It is the Islamic New Year, marking the important event of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) move from Makkah to Madinatul Munawera. Muharram is also one of the four sacred months of the year, in which fighting is forbidden.

Some significant events of Muharram are as follows:

  • Prophet Muhammad (swas) fled from Makkah in Muharram
  • Imam ‘Ali (as) laid down in prophet (saws)`s place to sacrifice himself and make it possible for Prophet (saws)`s to go to Madina
  • Prophet Muhammad (saws) went to the Cave in the way to Madina with his companion Abubakr Siddiq in Muharram. This event is mentioned in Holy Quran, Surat at Tawbah 9:40.
  • Prophet Muhammad (saws) arrived in Madinatul Munawera on the Day of ‘Ashura.
  • Imam Hussain(as) entered Karbala and established camp on the second day of Muharram

إِلَّا تَنصُرُ‌وهُ فَقَدْ نَصَرَ‌هُ اللَّـهُ إِذْ أَخْرَ‌جَهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُ‌وا ثَانِيَ اثْنَيْنِ إِذْ هُمَا فِي الْغَارِ‌ إِذْ يَقُولُ لِصَاحِبِهِ لَا تَحْزَنْ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ مَعَنَا ۖ فَأَنزَلَ اللَّـهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَيْهِ وَأَيَّدَهُ بِجُنُودٍ لَّمْ تَرَ‌وْهَا

Illa tansuroohu faqad nasarahullahu idh akhrajahul ladheena kafaro thaniya ithnayni idh huma fil ghari idh yaqolu lisahibihi la tahzan inna Allaha ma’ana, fa anzalAllahu sakeenatahu, ‘alayhi wa ayyadahu, bi junodin lam tarawha …”

“If you do not aid the Prophet – Allah has already aided him when those who disbelieved had driven him out [of Makkah] as one of two, when they were in the cave and he said to his companion, “Do not grieve; indeed Allah is with us, And Allah sent down his tranquility upon him and supported him with angels you did not see… ”  (Holy Quran, Surat at Tawbah -The Repentance 9:40)

The Significance of Muharram to the Naqshbandi Path

Muharram is also a month of great importance to Naqshbandis. Our Master and Imam of the Tariqah [Master of Naqshbandi Sufi Path] Shah Bahauddin Naqshband (qaddas Allahu sirrah) was born on the 14th of Muharram. It is thus important and most desired that his followers congregate on the eve of this holy day for Khatm and Dhikr, read the Mawlid un Nabi (Praises on Prophet Muhammad (saws)) in dedication to Mawlana Shah Naqshband, and read excerpts from his saintly life.

It is a tradition and practice of Sultan al Awliya Shaykh ‘Abdullah al Daghistani (qaddasallahu sirrah) to make Qurban (sacrifice) two sheeps on the day of ‘Ashura and distribute the meat to the poor and needy. He also did this on the birthday of Shah Naqshband (qaddasallahu sirrah).

 

Historical Significance of

The Day of ‘Ashura for All Nations

’Ashura is the 10th day of holy month of Muharram. It is a day of great historical significance in which many Prophets and their nations were saved.

On the day of ‘Ashura:

  • Sayyidina Adam (as) was forgiven by Allah (aj) after his exile from Paradise;
  • Sayyidina Nuh (as) and his companions in the ark were saved by Allah (aj).
  • Allah extinguished the fire in which Sayyidina Ibrahim (as) was thrown by Nimrod.
  • Allah (swt) spoke directly to Sayyidina Musa (Moses) (as) and gave him the Commandments. Also on this day, the sea was departed for Sayyidina Musa (as) and the nation of israel was saved from captivity, and Pharoah’s army was destroyed.
  • Sayyidina ‘Isa (Jesus) (as) was raised to Jannah on the day of ‘Ashura.
  • Sayyidina Muhammad (saws) was given the City of Light (Madinatul Munawera) on the day of ‘Ashura
  • It was on this day that the Skies earth and the Lauw-e-Qalam came into existence.
  • On this day Sayyidina Adam (AS) and Sayyidatina Hawa (Eve) were created.
  • Sayyidina Ayyub (as) ‘s health was restored (from leprosy).
  • Sayyidina Yusuf (as) was reunited with his father Ya’qub (as) after 40 years.
  • Sayyidina Yunus (Jonah) (as) was taken out from the belly of the fish.
  • Sayyidina Dawud (as) was forgiven.
  • The kingdom of Sulaiman (as) was restored.
  • Sayyidina Muhammad (saws) married Sayyidatina Khadija (ra).
  • Sayyidina al Hussain(as) [the Holy Prophet’s (saws), grandson] achieved the honor of Martyrdom in the battle of Karbala 61 AH(Oct 10, 680 AD).

Worship Allah (swt) as much as you can on ‘Ashura. Whoever fasts on this day is like one who fasts all his life. Whoever clothes a naked person Allah (swt) will release him from a painful punishment. He who visits a sick person, Allah (swt) will grant him a reward that will not be decreased. Whoever places his hand on an orphan’s head, or feeds a hungry person or gives water to a thirsty person, Allah will feed him a feast from Paradise and will quench his thirst with Salsabil (a wine that does not intoxicate). And who ever makes ghusl (shower) on this day will enjoy excellent health and freedom from sickness and laziness. Whoever provides generously for his family on this day, Allah (swt) will be generous to him throughout this year. And whoever applies kohl to his eyes will never suffer from eye-sore again, insha’Allah al-’Aziz.

 

Fasting in Muharram

It is recommended to fast as many days as possible in the holy month of Muharram as mentioned below in Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (saws), especially fast the following holy days:

  1. First day of Muharram – Islamic New Year 
  2. 9th of Muharram – Night (preceding) of ‘Ashura
  3. 10th of Muharram – Yawm al ‘Ashura
  4. 14th of Muharram – Birthday of Shah Bahauddin Naqshband (Q)
  5. Three day; Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, [preferably on the first 10 days of Muharram]

 

Ahadith Regarding Fasting in Muharram and ‘Ashura

  1. The best of fasts besides the month of Ramadan is the fast during Allah’s month of Muharram and the best of Salaats besides the Fardh (obligatory Salaat) is the Tahajjud Salaah (performed after midnight). (Sahih Muslim).
  1. Narrated from Ibn al’Abbas (radiAllahu ‘Anhu) that the Prophet (SallAllahu ʿalayhi wa sallam) said, “Whoever fasts the last day of Dhul Hijjah and the first day of  Muharram, he completes a whole year’s worth of fasting in that previous year, and Allah gives him penance for fifty [50] years.”
  1. Narrated from Anas (ra) that the Prophet (saw) said, “Whoever fasts the first Friday of Muharram Allah will forgive his preceding sins, and whoever fasts three days of  Muharram – Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, Allah will write for him worship and prayers for nine hundred [900] years.”
  1. Narrated from ‘Aisha Umm al Mu’mineen (ra) (mother of the believers) that the Prophet (SallAllahu ʿalayhi wa sallam) said, “Whoever fasts the first ten days up till ‘Ashura, he will inherit the Paradise al-Firdaus.”
  1. In another hadith the Prophet (SallAllahu ʿalayhi wa sallam) said, “Distinguish yourselves from (others) by fasting either the day before ‘Ashura or the day after it as well.” (Some scholars especially recommends to fast the day before Ashura (9th of Muharram)
  1. Fasting of ‘Ashura is Sunnah Mu’akkadah, that which is highly desired. Prophet (SallAllahu ʿalayhi wa sallam) said, “Whoever fasts the ‘Ashura (10th Muharram), Allah will write for him a thousand [1000] wishes and a thousand years of age, and will grant him the reward of a thousand martyrs, and will write for him the reward of Isma`il (as), and writes for him seventy [70] palaces in paradise, and makes his flesh forbidden from the hellfire.”
  1. In another hadith the Prophet (SallAllahu ʿalayhi wa sallam) said, “Whoever fasts the ‘Ashura, he will be granted the reward of a thousand angels. And whoever recites “Qul Huwa Allahu Ahad” a thousand [1000] times on the day of ‘Ashura, Allah will glance at him with the Eyes of Mercy, and will write him from amongst the Siddiqqin [The Truthful].”

 

Practices of the Day of ‘Ashura آداب عاشورا

Print for the Day of ‘Ashura – Ashura’s Adab and Practices -& Names of 72 Shuhada (Martyrs) of Karbalah

1. Take the Sunnah shower on the day of ‘Ashura

2. Wear the Kuhl on your eyes
And you will not suffer sickness in that year except the illness of death.

3. Read four (4) Rak’at Sunnah, in each rak’ah (cycle) after the Surat al Fatiha recite 11X Surat al Ikhlas (112th Chapter of Holy Quran)

بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

قُلْ هُوَ اللَّـهُ أَحَدٌ ﴿١﴾ اللَّـهُ الصَّمَدُ ﴿٢﴾ لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ ﴿٣﴾ وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ ﴿٤

Bismillahir Rahmanir Raheem.
Qul Huwa Allahu Ahad. (1) Allahus Samad. (2) Lam yalid wa lam yolad. (3) wa lam yakul lahu, kufuwan Ahad.” (4) (Surat al Ikhlas) 

Say, “He is Allah, [who is] One. (1) Allah , the Eternal Absolute/Refuge.(2) He neither begets nor is born. Nor there is none like unto Him.” (3) (The Sincerity, Holy Quran)

[By Praying these 4 Rak’ah, Allah will forgive your sins of fifty years, and will build for you a pulpit from light.]

4. Recite the Du’as of ‘Ashura:

a) Seventy times (70X)

حَسْبُنَا اللَّـهُ وَنِعْمَ الْوَكِيلُ.  نِعْمَ الْمَوْلَىٰ وَنِعْمَ النَّصِيرُ  ‌

Hasbun Allahu wa ni’mal wakeel, ni’mal Mawlaa wa ni’man Naseer.

Sufficient for us is Allah, and [He is] the best Disposer of affairs. The very best master and the very best help

    b) Seven Times (7X) Recite:

سُبْحَانَ اللَّـهُ مِلْءَ لْمِيْزَانْ وَمُنْتَهَى العِلْمَ، وَمَبْلَغَ الْرِضَا، وَزِنَةُ الْعَرْش، لَا مَلْجَاءَ وَلَا مَنْجَا مِنَ اللهِ اِلَا اِلَيْهِ. سُبْحَانَ اللهِ عَدَدَ شَفِيعْ وَالْعَرْشِ، وعَدَدَ كَلِمَاتِ رَبِّنَا التَامَّاتِ كُلِهَا. أَسْأَلُكَ السَّلَامَةَ، بِرَحْمَتِكَ يَا أَرْحَمَ الرَّاحِمِينْ. وَلَا حَوْلَه وَلَا قُوَّةَ إِلَا بِاللهِ الْعَلِيِ الْعَظِيْمِ. وَهُوَ حَسْبُنَا اللَّـهُ وَنِعْمَ الْوَكِيلُ.  نِعْمَ الْمَوْلَىٰ وَنِعْمَ النَّصِيرُ. وَصَل اللهُ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَ عَلَي آلِهِ وَصَحْبِهِ اَجْمَعِينْ

SubhanAllahu mil al Mizan wa muntaha ‘ilma, Wa mablaghal rida, Wa zinatul ‘arsh. La malja-a wa la manja minAllahi illa ilayhi. SubhanAllahi ‘adada shaf’i wal ‘arshi, Wa ‘adada kalimati Rabbina taammati kulliha.

As alukas Salamata, bi Rahmatika Ya Arhamar Rahimeen. Wa la hawla wa la quwwata illa billahil ‘Aliyyil ‘Azheem. Wa huwa hasbun Allahu wa ni’mal wakil, Ni’mal Mawla wa ni’man Naseer. Wa Sallallahu ‘ala Sayyidena Muhammadin wa ‘ala alihi wa sahbihi ajma’in.

Glorious is Allah, as much as what is in His great scale, and as far as His knowledge extends, and to such a degree as it attains His pleasure, and to whatever weight may be His Throne; there is no refuge and no safety from Allah except in Him.  Glorious is Allah, (He is declared so) as many as there be even (numbers) and as many as there be odd, and as many as there be perfect words of His; glory be to Him for them all.

 

We ask of You (our Lord) for safety, by Your mercy, O You who is the most merciful of all those who show mercy. Sufficient for us is Allah, and [He is] the best Disposer of affairs. The very best master and the very best help! And there is no power and no strength except in Allah, the High, the Great! May the grace of Allah, the Exalted, be upon our Master Muhammad and upon his family and his companions. And upon the believers men and women, and upon those who submit (in Islam), as much as there be atoms in existence and as much as there be things known to Allah; and all praise is due to Him, Lord of the Worlds.

5. Complete the Daily Awrad – On the day of ‘Ashura, about an hour before the Adhan for Maghrib,  Sit facing the Qiblah and finish the Naqshbandi Daily Adab/Awrad

6. Recite the Names of 72 Shuhada, Martyrs of Karbalah in English

7. Make Tawassul with Sayyidina Hussain (as) and the martyrs of Karbala, where on that day they were martyred (Shahid) with Sayyidena Hussain and those who were with him; may Allah’s favours be upon them.

8. Ihda (Gift) – After breaking your fast dedicate the blessings and rewards of your fast and daily Awrad upon the Prophet (saw) for the oceans secrets that open on the 14th of Muharram, which is Mawlana Shah Bahauddin Naqshband’s Birthday.

Naqshbandi Related Events:

  • 1st of Muharram – Birthday of Shaykh Khas Muhammad Shirwani (Q) (33rd Shaykh of Naqshbandi Golden Chain)
  • 9th of Muharram – Urs (Passing) of Shaykh Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abubakr Siddiq (Q) (4th Shaykh of Naqshbandi Golden Chain)
  • 9th of Muharram- Urs of Shaykh Shamsuddin Habiballah (Q) – (29th Shaykh of Naqshbandi Golden Chain)
  • 10th of Muharram – Urs of Shaykh Abul Hassan al Kharqani (Q) – (7th Shaykh of Naqshbandi Golden Chain)
  • 10th of Muharram – Birthday of Shaykh Faruqi Sirhindi (Q) – (25th Shaykh of Naqshbandi Golden Chain)
  • 14th of Muharram – Birthday of Shah Bahauddin Naqshband (Q) (Shaykh Tariqa, and 17th Shaykh of Naqshbandi Golden Chain)
  • 16th of Muharram – Birthday of Shaykh Jamaluddin Ghumuqi al Hussayni (Q) – (35th Shaykh of Naqshbandi Golden Chain)
  • 17th of Muharram – Urs of Shaykh Muhammad Effendi al Yaraghi (Q) – (34th Shaykh of Naqshbandi Golden Chain)
  • 19th of Muharram –Urs of Shaykh Darwish Muhammad (Q) (22nd Shaykh of Naqshbandi Golden Chain)

 

Articles Related to the Month of Muharram

By Mawlana Shaykh Nurjan Mirahmadi

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